Map of the Universe: Australian scientists chart millions of galaxies

Map of the Universe: Australian scientists chart millions of galaxies with advanced telescope. The CSIRO radio telescope maps three million galaxies in the Southern Sky Survey record. An Australian radio telescope has conducted an unprecedented survey of the southern sky, mapping three million galaxies in just two weeks, including nearly a million never-before-seen galaxies. ASKAP, consisting of 36 satellite dishes, map of the universe is a radio telescope designed for rapid surveys of large parts of the sky.

Map of the Universe

The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey, the test, a continuous ASKAP rapid survey, was a “census” of the universe that astronomers would use to explore the unknown. Millions of star-shaped points on the resulting map are distant galaxies, some of which have never been seen before.

This is the first time that CSIRO’s Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), a radio telescope located about 370 kilometers northeast of Geraldton in Western Australia, has been thoroughly tested and the results were hailed as a game changer for scientists. astronomers.

The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) has created a “Google Map” of the universe from 903 radio images in 300 hours. In the past, similar surveys have taken years to complete. CSIRO astronomer and lead author David McConnell said this is an important milestone for the radio telescope and the scientific community.

The fact that this was done quickly is quite significant. It’s a game changer, he said. This means that we can go back and do it again without much effort, and it gives astronomers a chance to see things that have changed. Most things are the same from year to year, but some things change dramatically (map of the universe).

The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey

Black hole mergers or periodic star explosions. The survey was designed to test the telescope system and ensure that it could meet the high-throughput processing requirements for a future square kilometer array.

Housed within the quiet Radio Murchison Radio Astronomy Observatory (MRO), ASKAP’s wide field of view, generated by 36 satellite dishes and a CSIRO-designed receiver, allows you to take extremely detailed panoramic photos of the sky and detect dim light from afar (map of the universe).

Six dish-shaped antennas are perched on red sand between green bushes, pointing to a cloudy blue sky. Astronomers will use the data to discover how galaxies form stars and interact with each other and with supermassive black holes. (Supply: CSIRO – map of the universe). While in the survey, each part of the sky was seen in just 15 minutes.

Astronomers

The final images reveal twice the level of detail compared to previous survey results. Each of the 903 images contained between 2,000 and 4,000 objects, and the study covered 83 percent of the sky. Dr. McConnell described the final image as a “census” of the universe, which includes the remains of exploded stars, pulsars, and nearby planets.

He said the data would be used by astronomers around the world to uncover the mysteries of the universe. They are already looking at images, particularly of stars in our own galaxy that may be active, he said. The Sun, our own star, periodically emits radio emissions that can interfere with our own terrestrial radio communications.

They have discovered dozens of bright exotic stars with enormous bursts of energy, and observing them helps us understand the physics of these types of stars. ASKAP surveyed the entire visible sky from the Murchison Radio Astronomy Observatory in the Western Australia region.

Unusual radio

The 13.5 exabytes of raw data generated by the telescope were processed and reconstructed using CSIRO’s custom ASKAPsoft software at the Pawsey Supercomputing Center in Kensington, Western Australia. Dr McConnell said looking at the images was “fascinating” for the time.

He said that normally you have to wait a long time to see another image of the sky, but they come out one after another. It is spectacular to see all these sources with their strange shapes, mind blowing even for an astronomer who is used to wondering! Although no extraterrestrial life was found during the study, stars with unusual radio emission activity were occasionally detected.

Dr. McConnell said the team did not expect any evidence of aliens from the telescope, but nothing has been ruled out. I would be very surprised, he said. When we see an object changing its radio power, there is little chance that it is not naturally occurring radiation, which could be an outlet for intelligent life of some kind. I won’t deny anything, but most likely I will have to put up with it.

ESA’s Gaia mission

Analysis Consortium released the most detailed list of stars. ESA’s Gaia mission publishes data on more than 1.8 billion stars. Astronomers from the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium released the most detailed list of stars in the Milky Way today. The new dataset, called Gaia Early Data Release 3 (EDR3), contains detailed information (stellar position, velocity, brightness and color) on more than 1.8 billion sources known to ESA’s Gaia satellite.

This represents an increase of more than 100 million sources over the previous data release, which was made public in April 2018. More than 1.8 billion data stars have been used to create this map of the entire sky. It shows the full brightness and color of the stars seen by ESA’s Gaia satellite and has been released as part of Gaia’s Early Data Release 3.

Plane of Milky Way

The bright regions represent the density of bright stars, while the darkest regions correspond to patches of sky where fewer and faster stars are seen. The color of the image is obtained by combining the total amount of light with the amount of blue and red light recorded by Gaia in each part of the sky.

The bright horizontal structure dominating the image is the plane of Milky Way. It is actually a flattened disk saw edge that contains most of the stars in the Galaxy. In the middle of the image, the galactic center appears bright and full of stars. The darkest regions of the galactic plane correspond to precursor clouds of interstellar gas and dust.

Which absorb light from more distant stars. Many of these clouds hide the stellar nursery where new generation stars are currently being born. There are many circular and open clusters scattered throughout the image, as well as our own entire galaxies. The two bright objects in the lower right of the image are the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, two dwarf galaxies that orbit the Milky Way.

Gravitational forces between the Earth & the Sun

Launched on December 19, 2013, Gaia operates in an orbit around the so-called Lagrange point 2 (L2) located 1.5 million kilometers behind the Earth in a direction away from the Sun. At L2, the gravitational forces between the Earth and the Sun are balanced, so the spacecraft remains in a stable state, making farsighted scenes essentially without the sky.

Gaia’s main goal is to measure stellar distances using the parallax method. In this case, astronomers use the observatory to continuously scan the sky and measure the apparent change in the position of the stars over time, resulting in the movement of the Earth around the Sun. Knowing that their distances can be calculate by small changes in the position of the stars.

Gaia tracks the changing brightness and position of stars over time in its line of sight (its so-called proper speed), and by dividing their light into spectra, it measures how fast they are moving towards or away from the sun and evaluate the chemical composition. Equipped with 106 CCDs, equivalent to a camera with a resolution of one billion pixels, Gaia examines 50 million stars per day, completing ten measurements at a time. Representing a total of 500 million data points per day.

Future of our galaxy

Gaia measures distances of hundreds of millions of objects that are thousands of light years away, with an accuracy equivalent to measuring hair thickness over 2,000 km, said UK Gaia DPAC project manager Dr. Floor said van Leeuwen, an astronomer at the Institute of Astronomy at the University of Cambridge. These data are one of the pillars of astrophysics, allowing us to analyze our stellar neighborhood and address important questions about the origin and future of our galaxy.

The previous two launches, Gaia DR1 and Gaia DR2, featured positions of 1.6 billion stars. The Gaia EDR3 launch brings the total down to 2 billion stars. The status of which is significantly more accurate than previous figures. This is the first two-part release; A full Gia DR3 release is planned for 2022. The new promise of Gaia data is a treasury fund for astronomers, said Gaia project associate scientist Dr. José de Bruijnen, ESA astronomer said.

The new data includes exceptionally accurate measurements of 331,312 objects, about 92% of the stars within 100 parsecs (326 light years) of the Sun. The last census of the solar neighborhood, called the Gliese Catalog of Nearby Stars, was conducted in 1957. It initially had only 915 objects, but in 1991 it was updated to 3,803 celestial objects. It was also limited to a distance of 82 light years: the census of Gaia reaches four times as many and has 100 times as many stars.

It also provides location, speed, and brightness measurements that are orders of magnitude more accurate than older data. The researchers also confirmed that the solar system is accelerating its orbit around the galaxy. Using the observed targets of extremely distant galaxies, the velocity of our solar system has been measured to change every second at 0.23 nm / sec.

History of optical astronomy

Due to this small acceleration, the path of the solar system deviates by the diameter of one atom per second, adding up to about 115 km in a year. The acceleration measured by Gaia shows good agreement with theoretical expectations and provides the first measure of the curvature of the solar system’s orbit around the galaxy in the history of optical astronomy.

The team also sees evidence of the Milky Way’s past by looking at the stars in the direction of the galaxy’s ‘anticenter’. It is exactly in the opposite direction from the center of the galaxy to the sky. Computer models hypothesized that the Milky Way’s disk would enlarge over time as new stars were born. The new data allows scientists to see remnants of 10-billion-year-old ancient disks and thus establish a range smaller than the current size of the Milky Way disk.

The data from these peripheral regions also reinforce the evidence for another major event in the Galaxy’s more recent times. The data shows that the outer regions of the disk have a slow-moving wire component above the plane of our galaxy moving down toward the plane, and a fast-moving wire component below the plane above. In direction to

Astronomer at the University of Barcelona

This extraordinary pattern was not anticipated before. This may be the result of a near-collision between the Milky Way and the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy that occurred in our galaxy’s recent past. Disc stars have different movement patterns than we used to believe, said Dr. Teresa Antoja, an astronomer at the University of Barcelona.

“Although the role of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy is still debated in some quarters, it may be a good candidate for all of these disturbances, as some simulations by other authors show.” The new Gaia data also reconstructs the Milky Way’s two largest companion galaxies. The Small and Large Magellanic Clouds, allowing astronomers to see their different stellar populations.

Small Magellanic cloud

After measuring the motion of the stars in the large Magellanic cloud more precisely than before, the team clearly shows that the galaxy has a spiral structure. The data also resolves a stream of stars that are being ejected from the small Magellanic cloud, and hints at previously undiscovered structures on the outskirts of both galaxies.

Gaia EDR3 is the result of a great effort on the part of everyone involved in the Gaia mission, said Gaia project scientist Dr. Timo Priesti, ESA astronomer said.

This is an exceptionally rich data set, and I look forward to the many discoveries that astronomers around the world will make with this resource and we haven’t done it yet and more great data will follow as Gaia continues to measure from orbit. These attractive results come from a set of documents that demonstrate the quality of the EDR3 version.

Map of the universe
Map of the Universe: Australian scientists chart millions of galaxies with advanced telescope

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