NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover, as seen billions of years ago on Mars. Researchers have developed hydrogen and oxygen harvesting systems for use on Mars.
The active Martian water cycle, that is, the presence of shallow water and soluble perchlorate salts in Martian soil, enables the production of life-sustaining oxygen and hydrogen fluoride on Mars through the electrolysis of brine perchlorate.
A team of scientists at Washington University in St. Louis has demonstrated temperatures of minus 36 degrees Celsius (minus 32.8 degrees Fahrenheit) to produce ultra-ordered hydrogen and oxygen from liquid Martian brine.
This illustration shows the Jazero crater landing site, NASA’s Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover, as seen billions of years ago on Mars, when it was a lake. Image Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech
“Our Martian brine electrolyzer has changed the logistics algorithm for missions to Mars and beyond,” said Professor Vijay Ramani, a researcher at the Center for Solar Energy and Energy Storage at Washington University in St. Louis.
This technology is equally useful on Earth, where it opens up the seas as a viable source of oxygen and fuel. NASA’s Persistence Rover is now the route to Mars, with devices that will use high-temperature electrolysis.
However, the Mars Oxygen In Situ Resource Utilization Experiment (MOXIE) will only produce oxygen, from carbon dioxide in the air. The electrolyzer developed by Professor Ramani and his colleagues can produce 25 times more oxygen than MOXIE. It also produces hydrogen.
Which can be used as fuel for the astronauts’ journey home. Our new brine electrolyzer includes a lead ruthenate pyrochlorine anode developed by our team with platinum on the carbon cathode, said Professor Ramani.
These carefully engineered components have been combined with optimal use of traditional electrochemical engineering principles, leading to this high performance.
The careful design and unique anode allow the equipment’s electrolyzer to function without the need to heat or purify the water source.
Paradoxically, the filtrate dissolved in water, the so-called impurities, actually helps the Mars-like environments, said Dr. Srihari Sankarasubramanian, Center for Solar Energy and Energy and Energy Storage, said an environmental researcher and Chemical Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis.
They prevent the water from freezing and improve the performance of the electroistor system by reducing electrical resistance.
Typically, water electrolyzers use high-purity deionized water, which increases the cost of the system. A system that can run on salt or suboptimal water, as the technology demonstrated by the team.
And can vastly improve the economic value proposition of water electrolyzers everywhere, even on Earth. “Demonstrating these electrolyzers on demand, we have intended to deploy them in very high conditions on Earth, in Martinique conditions, to use salt water or salt water food to produce hydrogen or oxygen.
For example, through the electrolysis of seawater “postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Energy, Environment and Chemical Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis. The team’s work was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Plasma technology may be the key to generating oxygen supplies on Mars. A study published in the journal Plasma Sources Science and Technology argues that Mars, with its 96% carbon dioxide (CO2) atmosphere, is an almost ideal condition for the decomposition of CO2 by non-thermal (not equilibrium) plasmas.
Artist’s concept of a colony on Mars. Image courtesy: NASA Mars has resources that can be used for a sustainable settlement. In particular, the local production of oxygen on the planet can help solve the problems of making fuel to return to Earth and create a breathable environment for future outposts.
In fact, the main component of the Martian atmosphere is CO2 (95.9%), with small percentages of argon (1.9%), nitrogen (1.9%) and other gases. CO2 can be converted to oxygen and carbon monoxide (CO). “Sending manned missions to Mars is one of the important next steps in our exploration of space.
However, creating a breathing environment is a great challenge, ”said study lead author Dr. Vasco Guerra told the University of Lisbon in Portugal. “The improvement of CO2 plasma on Earth is a growing field of research, driven by climate change and solar fuel production problems.”
Low temperature plasma is one of the best media for CO2 electron decomposition. Which occurs by direct impact of electrons and transferring electron energy to vibratory excitation. Mars is well positioned for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) by plasma. In addition to its CO2 atmosphere.
The surrounding cold atmosphere (on average about 210 Kelvin) can produce a stronger vibratory effect than Earth’s. Low atmospheric temperatures also serve to slow down the reaction, allowing additional time for the molecules to separate.
The low-temperature plasma decomposition method provides a twofold solution for a manned mission to Mars,” Dr. Guerra said. “This will not only provide a stable and reliable supply of oxygen. But also as a fuel source, CO has been proposed to be used as a propellant mixture in rocket vehicles.”
This ISRU approach can help greatly simplify the logistics of a mission to Mars. “This allows for greater self-sufficiency, reduces risk to the crew, and reduces costs by requiring fewer vehicles to complete the mission.” March has a mission to thank herself, Plessen Technology.
- Plasma technology may be the key to creating a sustainable oxygen supply on Mars, a new study has found.
This suggests that Mars, with its 96 percent carbon dioxide atmosphere, is an almost ideal condition for producing oxygen from CO2 through a process known as dissolution.
Published in the journal Plasma Sources Science and Technology, an investigation by the Universities of Lisbon and Porto and the Ecole Polytechnic of Paris shows that the range of pressures and temperatures in the Martian atmosphere means non-thermal (or non-equilateral) plasma.
It is used to produce oxygen efficiently. The lead author from the University of Lisbon, Drs. Vasco Guerra said: “Sending manned missions to Mars is one of the important next steps in our exploration of space.
However, creating a breathing atmosphere is a great challenge. Improving CO2 plasma on Earth is a growing field of research, driven by climate change and solar fuel production problems. Low temperature plasma is one of the best means of decomposing CO2: oxygen and carbon.
Division of the molecule into monoxide: by direct impact of electrons and transferring energy from electrons to vibratory energy. Mars has excellent conditions for in situ resource utilization (ISRU) by plasma.
In addition to its CO2 atmosphere, the atmosphere surrounding the cold (around 210 Kelvin on average) can produce a much stronger vibratory effect than Earth’s. Low atmospheric temperatures also serve to slow down the reaction, allowing additional time for the molecules to separate.
Dr. Guerra said: “The low temperature plasma decomposition method provides a twofold solution for manned missions to Mars. It will provide not only a stable and reliable supply of oxygen, but also as a source of fuel, as well as carbon monoxide. The rocket has been proposed to be used as a propellant mixture in vehicles.
“This ISRU approach can help greatly simplify the logistics of a mission to Mars. This will reduce costs by increasing self-sufficiency, reducing risk to the crew, and requiring fewer vehicles to complete the mission. “