Paleontologists find the first complete egg of the extinct King Island dwarf emu. Although the egg was similar in size to that of continental amus, a pair of avian paleontologists from Australia and the United Kingdom used it to count the King Island emu (Dromyces novaehollandiae minor), about 44% smaller than the species. alive.
Reconstruction of Elephant Seal Bay circa 1802, with southern elephant seals and King Island emus. The islands off the southern coast of Australia once harbored three subspecies of continental emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae): Reconstruction of C Elephant Bay around 1802, with Southern Elephant Seal and King Island Ames. Tasmanian Chota Emu (D. n. Dimenensis) and two dwarf emus: the King Island emu and the Kangaroo Island emu (D. N. baudinianus).
Paleontologists find the first complete egg
Due to the limited distribution and small population size, they all became increasingly extinct after human settlers discovered them due to overhunting. They disappeared from King Island in 1805, and a captive couple survived in Paris until 1822; From Kangaroo Island until 1730; And from Tasmania to 1850.
Little was recorded about its life history and only a few historical museum specimens exist, including several complete eggs from Tasmania and one egg from Kangaroo Island.
In new research, avian paleontologists Julian Hume and Christian Robertson conducted a detailed analysis of dwarf emus eggs. They examined 38 intact continental emu eggs, 6 eggs of the Tasmanian subspecies, and the first known complete eggs of the King Island subspecies.
The unique egg was found in the Yellow Rock River on King Island along with the King Island Emu skeleton, other individual Emu bones, and egg shells.
The results showed that despite the reduction in the size of all island emus, especially the King Island emu, which are on average 44% smaller than mainland birds, the egg remained the same size in linear measurement, but less in volume and mass. apparently a little thin eggshell
“This was a reaction to the reduced resources and harsh environmental conditions in their respective island homes, where development likely favored large emu chicks that were relatively mature and mobile at birth, and could quickly forage for food and cope with the cold. . heat, “the researchers said.
Paleontologists find the first complete egg
“This scenario provides an interesting evolutionary response to island environmental conditions in the dwarf emu rearing strategy, but due to their complete and rapid extinction, the true extent of these adaptations is now impossible to determine.” An article on the findings was published in the journal Biology Letters.
Nearly extinct dwarf emu egg found on King Island. A pair of researchers, one from the UK Museum of Natural History and the other a King Island historian, have found a nearly extinct dwarf emu egg on King Island. In their article published in the journal Biology Letters, Julian Hume and Christian Robertson have described the egg and also compared it to other dwarf emu eggs and emu eggs on the continent.
Emu is a flightless bird found only in Australia and the surrounding islands. It is the second largest bird after the ostrich. Previous research has shown that, in addition to the mainland emu, a variety of dwarf emu lived on at least three islands off the southern coast of Australia.
And all of these became extinct shortly after the arrival of European settlers. The three islands, Tasmania, Kangaroo, and Raja, all had their own species of dwarf emu, and each bore the name of the island it lived on.
Paleontologists find the first complete egg
Previous research has suggested that the size of the emu on the islands is due to limited resources. Of the three, the King Island emu was the smallest, measuring only a meter long and weighing half the weight of the continental emu.
Little is known about the dwarf emu due to its sudden disappearance, but scientists have managed to find and study several Tasmanian emu eggs and an island kangaroo. But so far no King Island eggs have been found. The researchers discovered eggs in the sand dunes. Upon retrieval and inspection.
The egg was found to be nearly complete, giving the researchers an excellent sample for study. The researchers found that, like other dwarf emu eggs, the size of a very large continental emu egg on King Island was nearly identical. They believe that, due to the harsh conditions on the islands.
The emu that lived in them had to stay in their shells for a long time; a large shell allowed them to remain in their shells until they could walk and forage for themselves. It will also keep them warm enough to survive the cool island nights.
Five new species of Listeria bacteria were discovered. A team of microbiologists from Cornell University has isolated five new non-pathogenic species from Listeria soil samples from a sample of agricultural water from various locations in New York and the United States. The discovery will help food facilities identify potential developments that may have been overlooked until now, thereby improving food safety.
Five new species of Listeria bacteria were discovered
Listeria cosartaria is named after Pascal Cossart, a bacteriologist at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Listeria Cosartia is named after the bacteriologist Pascal Cossart of the Institut Pasteur in Paris. Image credit: Katherine Carlin, Cornell University. Listeria is a genus of spontaneously anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacteria that includes more than 20 different species. The genus got its current name in 1940 after Joseph Lister, a British pioneer of sterile surgery.
Listeria species are known as saprophytes in the soil. Several species are pathogens carried by sheep and goats. The main human foodborne pathogen is Listeria monocytogenes. It is usually the causative agent of listeriosis, an infection caused by eating food contaminated with bacteria. “Our research expands the set of Listeria species monitored in food production settings,” said Catherine Carlin, a doctoral student in the Department of Food Sciences at Cornell University.
“Expanding the knowledge base to understand the diversity of Listeria will prevent confusion and mistakes from the food business world, as well as prevent contamination, explain false positives and foodborne outbreaks. The five new species are Listeria cosartia, Listeria immobilis, Listeria portnoi, Listeria rustica, and Listeria farberry. Listeria immobilis lacked mobility or the ability to walk. Other Listeria species move around a lot.
Five new species of Listeria bacteria
Among scientists, motility was considered normal in Listeria species closely related to Listeria monocytogenes. “This finding effectively requires rewriting the standard identification protocols issued by food safety regulators,” Carlin said.
“This article describes some unique characteristics of the Listeria species closely related to Listeria monocytogenes, which would be important from an evolutionary perspective and from a practical point of view for the food industry. Presumably some tests will need to be re-evaluated, ”said Professor Martin Widman, also from Cornell University’s Department of Food Science. Understanding the different species of Listeria is the key to understanding their similarities.
It will help us improve the identification of Listeria monocytogens and not misidentify it like anything else, said Professor Wiedman. When inspecting the environment of food processing plants or restaurants. Know the pathogenic Listeria of non-pathogenic species. You have to distinguish the good guys from the bad guys. An article describing the discovery was published in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology.
Five new species of Listeria have been discovered, increasing food security. Food scientists at Cornell University discovered five new and previously unknown relatives of Listeria while investigating the spread of the bacteria in agricultural soils in the United States. According to the researchers, the discovery will help food facilities identify new developments that were previously overlooked, thereby increasing food safety.
immobilis, one of the newer species, lacked mobility, despite the fact that Listeria is very mobile. Scientists used to believe that motility in Listeria was widespread in L. monocytogenes, a known foodborne pathogen. Therefore, mobility was used as the main test in the identification of Listeria.
Food science PhD student, lead author Katherine R. According to Carlin, the discovery of new species without any dynamics required modification of the standard identification protocols provided by food safety regulators. Listeria monocytogenes can have a significant pathogenic effect in food processing facilities.
So they must be kept clean. According to the US Food and Drug Administration, the death rate for listeriosis is 20% to 30%, regardless of whether the patient is taking antibiotics. In addition, as stated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 1,600 people in the United States contract listeriosis each year, of which approximately 260 die.
Five new species of Listeria bacteria
“This research expands the set of Listeria species monitored in food production settings,” Carlin said. “Expanding the knowledge base to understand the diversity of Listeria will prevent confusion and mistakes from the commercial food world, as well as prevent contamination, explain false positives and foodborne outbreaks.”
Curiosity detects clouds of carbon dioxide ice in the sky of Mars. In March 2021, NASA’s Curiosity Rover observed clouds made of carbon dioxide (CO2) ice at high altitudes in the atmosphere of Mars. These clouds were captured by Curiosity after sunset on March 19, 2021, the 3063th day of the Rover mission, or Sol. The image is made up of 21 different images that are stitched together and color-corrected to make the scene match. see exactly how it appears to the human eye.
Curiosity captured these clouds just after sunset and the 3063rd Martian day, or sun, of the rover’s mission. The image is made up of 21 different images that are stitched together and color corrected so that the scene looks exactly as it appears to the human eye.
Clouds are generally found at the equator of Mars at the coldest time of year, when the planet is farthest from the Sun in its oval-shaped orbit. But two years ago, members of the Curiosity team saw clouds in the atmosphere of Mars earlier than expected.
This year, they were ready to start documenting these first clouds from the moment they first appeared in January. The result is images of smart puffs filled with ice crystals that scatter the light of the setting sun, some of them flickering with color.
The researchers also found that the early-onset clouds are actually higher than normal. Most of the clouds on Mars rise no higher than 60 km (37 miles) in the sky and are made up of water ice.
But the clouds that Curiosity has picked up are at higher altitudes, where it is much colder, indicating that they are likely composed of frozen carbon dioxide. This animated image shows drifting clouds at Sharp Mount on Mars as seen by Curiosity on March 19, 2021.
Each frame in the scene was joined from six different images. This animated image shows clouds flowing over Mount Sharp on Mars, as Curiosity sees them, and each frame of the scene was stitched together from six different images.
When viewed just after sunset, their ice crystals capture fading light, causing them to glow against the dark sky. These twilight clouds, also known as night clouds, turn luminous as they fill with crystals, then turn black when the sun’s position in the sky falls below its height.
This is just a helpful clue that scientists use to determine how high they are. Even more amazing are the iridescent or ‘mother of pearl’ clouds. Dr. Mark Leman said, “If you see clouds with a bright pastel color set, it is because the cloud particles are almost identical in size.”
An atmospheric scientist at the Institute of Science News. This usually happens after the clouds have formed and all have grown at the same rate. These clouds are among the most colorful things on the red planet.
If you were looking up at the sky next to Curiosity, you could see the colors with the naked eye, although they would be dim. I always marvel at the colors that appear: red and green and blue and purple. It is really nice to see something glowing on Mars with many colors.